For Physicochemical Parameters

Antibacterial Activity

Antibacterial activity was observed to judge the product’s effectiveness in removal/killing of microbes/germs.

  • All the brands were effective in removing/killing germs significantly.
  • Zone of Inhibition

    The ‘zone of inhibition’ test is a fast, qualitative way to measure the ability of an antimicrobial agent to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. This test allows manufacturers of antimicrobial products to compare the inhibition levels of their product.

  • All of the brands cleared the test and received full score.
  • Contact Kill

    This test was conducted to measure the rate of killing of bacteria.

  • All the brands cleared the test and received full score.
  • Synthetic Detergent

    The recommended limit by Indian Standards is a maximum two per cent for soap-based hand washes. A balanced mixture of total fatty matter (TFM) and synthetic detergent would be a good option but with the quantities of both meeting the BIS requirements.

    It may be noted that a high quantity of synthetic detergent in toiletries is associated with environmental hazards. Synthetic detergent must be absent in the composition of the product for it to qualify for Eco Mark labeling in India.

  • Bacter Shield (12.45 per cent) and Reliance (12.4 per cent) were found to have the highest quantity of synthetic detergent (these are non-soap-based and hence the two per cent limit is not applicable).
  • Lowest synthetic detergent was found in Patanjali (1.51 per cent), a herbal hand wash.
  • Total Fatty Matter

    For soap-based liquid hand washes – namely Lifebuoy and Hamam – TFM requirement is a minimum 15 per cent. There is no requirement for non-soap-based liquid hand wash.

  • All of the tested brands had less than 15 per cent of total fatty matter.
  • Hamam was found to have 14.74 per cent TFM and Lifebuoy 13.8 per cent.
  • Among non-soap-based brands, Dettol (8.51 percent) had the highest amount of TFM.
  • Matter Insoluble In Alcohol

    The lower the insoluble material, the better is the product. Apart from adding on to the weight, insoluble materials also make a difference to the overall cleaning ability of the product.

  • Highest matter insoluble in alcohol was found in Hamam (1.58 per cent); the lowest was in Savlon (0.064 percent).
  • Foam Height

    The foam height is tested to measure the ability to generate lather, which is quite essential for washing and is expected by users.

  • Highest foam generation was in Hamam and Lifebuoy (both 240 mm) and lowest in Reliance and Palmolive (both 160 mm).
  • Stability

    The product shall remain a homogeneous stable composition and show no sign of separation or sedimentation when kept at 5 degree C for 24 hours.

  • All brands met the stability condition.
  • Free Caustic Alkali

    It should be on the lower side.

  • It was not detected in any of the tested brands – they all received full score.

  • For Sensory Attributes

    Sensory (organoleptic) panel tests were conducted to judge the products on these attributes: lather richness, fragrance, smoothness on use, washing ability, and free from irritation/allergy on regular and consistent use.

  • Palmolive and Bacter Shield topped in the overall sensory scores.

  • For General Qualities


    The package/container shall be legibly and indelibly marked with the following information:

  • Indication of the source of manufacture
  • Brand name of the material and recognised trade mark, if any
  • Volume of the material for liquid
  • Batch No. or Lot No. in code or otherwise
  • Month and year of manufacture
  • MRP
  • Best-before use
  • All the brands had provided the required information on the packaging.

    Net Quantity

    As per Legal Metrology Rules, net quality of the product should be within the permissible limit for the declared value.

  • All the brands were found to be above the declared quantity of content and received full score.
  • Packing

    The container of antibacterial liquid hand wash should be tamperproof and well-closed, and made of glass or plastic. The container of liquid hand wash should be such that it is convenient to use; it may also be reusable or refillable..

  • All the brands used plastic containers/bottles.